Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons have a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge.
If we get an electron to "pop off" its shell, the atom will have a positive charge.
Some materials easily lose and gain electrons easily (like metals). Others are insulators and don't lose electrons easily.
Both the positive and negative charges have a field around them (picture balloons filled, pushing one direction or another).
Voltage is the amount of difference between the positive and negative charges. +12v is a unit of measurement for how much more protons are present than electrons. Voltage is the location of the charge.
Current is the movement of the charges from one place to another.
Resistance is how difficult it is to get those electrons (negative charges) to pop off and move.
Chapter 1: What I should have learned in Engineering 101.
Voltage = pressure in the water gun.
Current = diameter of the stream of water
Power = Volts * Current
Friction = force/speed (friction is proportional to the force applied divided by the speed of movement)
resistance = voltage/current (resistance is proportional to the voltage divided by the current)
Mass = force * Time/speed (meaning, an objects mass is equal to how fast it's moving)
inductance = voltage * time/Current (inductance = the volts * time divided by how much current is drawn.)
So, a resistor creates friction, slowing down the movement of charge
A capacitor is like a spring, it holds the energy.
capacitance = current * time / voltage